(Republic of Sudan)
Sudan, sometimes referred to as North Sudan, is an Arab state in North Africa and the Middle East bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea and Ethiopia to the east, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west and Libya to the northwest. Internally, the Nile divides the country into eastern and western halves. The population of Sudan is a combination of indigenous inhabitants of the Nile Valley and descendants of migrants from the Arabian Peninsula.
History[edit | edit source]
Pre-Colonial[edit | edit source]
During the 16th century, a people called the Funj appeared in southern Nubia and supplanted the remnants of the old Christian kingdom of Alwa, establishing the Blue Sultanate, also called the Sultanate of Sennar. The Blue Sultanate eventually became the keystone of the Funj Empire.
By the mid-16th century, Sennar controlled Al Jazirah and commanded the allegiance of vassal states and tribal districts north to the Third Cataract and south to the rainforests. But in 1820, Muhammad Ali of Egypt sent 4,000 troops to invade Sudan. His forces accepted Sennar's surrender from the last Funj sultan, Badi VII.
Eventually, a revolt broke out in Sudan, led by Muhammad Ahmad ibn Abd Allah, the Mahdi (Guided One), who sought to end foreign presence in Sudan. Later that year, the Mahdi's forces attacked and entered Khartoum, which had been defended by the British Governor-General, Charles George Gordon, who was killed. Egypt and Britain subsequently withdrew their forces from Sudan leaving the Mahdi and his successor to form a 14 year rule of Sudan.
In the 1890s, the British sought to re-establish their control over Sudan, once more officially in the name of the Egyptian Khedive. By the early 1890s, British, French and Belgian claims had converged at the Nile headwaters.
Lord Kitchener led military campaigns against the Mahdists from 1896 to 1898. Kitchener's campaigns culminated in a decisive victory in the Battle of Omdurman on 2 September 1898. Following this, in 1899, Britain and Egypt reached an agreement under which Sudan was run by a governor-general appointed by Egypt with British consent.
Post-Colonial[edit | edit source]
The Egyptian Revolution of 1952 finally heralded the beginning of the march towards Sudanese independence. Having abolished the monarchy in 1953, Egypt's new leaders believed the only way to end British domination in Sudan was for Egypt to officially abandon its claims of sovereignty over Sudan.
A polling process was carried out resulting in composition of a democratic parliament and Ismail al-Azhari was elected first Prime Minister and led the first modern Sudanese government.
In 1955 a civil war began between Northern and Southern Sudan. The southerners, anticipating independence, feared the new nation would be dominated by the north. Historically, the north of Sudan had closer ties with Egypt and was predominantly Arab or Arabized and Muslim while the south was predominantly non-Arabized and animist or Christian.
The resulting conflict lasted from 1955 to 1972. The 1955 war began when Southern army officers mutinied and then formed the Anya-Nya guerilla movement. A few years later the first Sudanese military regime took power under Major-General Abboud. Military regimes continued into 1969 when General Gaafar Nimeiry led a successful coup.
In 1972, a cessation of the north-south conflict was agreed upon under the terms of the Addis Ababa Agreement. This led to a ten-year hiatus in the national conflict with the south enjoying self-government through the formation of the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region.
In 1983, the civil war was reignited following President Nimeiry's decision to circumvent the Addis Ababa Agreement. Nimeiry attempted to create a federated Sudan including states in southern Sudan, which violated the Addis Ababa Agreement that had granted the south considerable autonomy.
On 30 June 1989, Colonel Omar al-Bashir led a group of army officers in ousting the unstable coalition government of Prime Minister Sadiq al-Mahdi in a bloodless military coup. Under al-Bashir's leadership, the new military government suspended political parties and introduced an Islamic legal code on the national level.
In 1995, former U.S. President Jimmy Carter negotiated the longest ceasefire in the history of the war to allow humanitarian aid to enter Southern Sudan, which had been inaccessible owing to violence. This ceasefire, which lasted almost six months, has since been called the "Guinea Worm Ceasefire."
Peace talks between the southern rebels and the government made substantial progress in 2003 and early 2004. The peace was consolidated with the official signing by both sides of the Nairobi Comprehensive Peace Agreement on 9 January 2005, granting Southern Sudan autonomy for six years, to be followed by a referendum about independence.
The southern region became independent on 9 July 2011, with the name of South Sudan. Despite this result, many crucial issues are yet unresolved. The threats to people of South Sudan after referendum are numerous, with security topping the list.
Tiberium Universe[edit | edit source]
First Tiberium War[edit | edit source]
During the First Tiberium War, Sudan was governed by a military junta, with 52% corruptibility. GDI had established several prison camps for Nod POWs and high value leaders within the country (confirmed locations include Kafia-Kingi and Al-Ubayyid) with the junta's consent - this was likely done as Sudan had very lax laws concerning treatment of prisoners, and interrogation methods. Prior to liberating these prison camps, the country had a population of 28,305,000 citizens, net worth of 12.1 billion dollars and a respectable military with a resistance factor of 72%.
The release of these prisoners was the catalyst for the fall of the ruling Sudanese military junta to Nod supporting elements and the country offered a convenient staging area to launch more attacks into the Heart of the continent. GDI forces were never able to re-capture the country totally, hence it mostly fell out of orbit of the UN.
After the conclusion of the war, when Nod began to break up, Sudan was at the heart of the African forces various bids for power. Furthermore, more battles between Nod and GDI were to take place in the country, with GDI nearly losing their last foothold in the country in an Infiltration scheme. They were able to keep the base however.
|“||Nod Categorisation of Egypt at the time of their liberation of the prison-camps||”|
- Population: 28,305,000
- Expendability: 50%
- Capital: Khartoum
- Government type: Military Dictatorship
- Government corruptibility : 52%
- Net Worth: $12.2 billion
- Military Strength: Respectable
- Military Resistance: 72%
Third Tiberium War[edit | edit source]